The Early Days and Life of the Prophet Muhammad (AD 570-632) The history of Islam begins with the life of the Prophet Muhammad, born in Mecca (ultra-modern Saudi Arabia). He entered God's revelation through the angel Gabriel and began preaching Islam in the early 7th century. It faced opposition from the Meccan authorities but eventually won support. In 622 C.E., he and his followers migrated to Medina (known as Hijra), which marks the morning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad founded a community based on Islamic principles. He returned to Mecca in 630 and founded the megacity as a center for the sanctification of Islam. His training and behavior during this period are recorded in the Quran and Hadith.
Expansion and Beginning of the Caliphate (632-750 CE) After the death of the Prophet of Islam, a series of caliphs (successors) ruled the Muslim community. The first four Caliphs are known as the "properly guided Caliphs". During this period, the Muslim army expanded the Islamic State across the Arabian Peninsula, Persia, the Levant, North Africa, and the European corridor. The Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 AD) was the first hereditary Islamic dynasty, with its capital at Damascus, and continued to expand the conglomerate.
The Golden Age of Islam (8-13th centuries) The Abbasid Sultanate (750-1258 AD), with its capital in Baghdad, ruled during a period of artistic, scientific, and intellectual development. Scholars have devoted themselves to excellence in such colorful fields as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, gospel, and literature. The House of Wisdom in Baghdad has become a renowned center for literacy, reform and preservation of ancient Greek, Roman and other ancient textbooks. Decline and last fiefdoms (11th - 19th centuries) Over time, the Abbasid Sultanate waned and colorful Muslim fiefs and dynasties emerged. During this period, the Seljuk Turks, the Fatimids in Egypt and the Ottoman Empire were among the most important powers. The pews, in particular, became a dominant force, landing in Constantinople in 1453 and spreading throughout Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.
Colonialism and the ultra-modern era (19th-20th centuries) In the 19th century, many areas of the adult Muslim population came under the domination of European society. It is a sensitive time for Muslims, as their society is often very peaceful and their political and artistic systems chaotic. During the 20th century, many "mature" states sought to gain independence and form their own governments.
Contemporary Issues and Movements (20th-21st centuries) The 20th century has seen the emergence of colorful political and social movements in the Muslim world. These include pan-Islamism, Arab nationalism, and Islamic movements that seek to establish Islamic states based on Sharia law. In 1979, the Iranian revolution led to the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The rise of revolutionary groups similar to Al-Qaeda and ISIS in recent decades has also had a significant impact on Muslim-majority regions and the global understanding of Islam. It is important to note that the history of Islam is extremely different and multifaceted, involving many societies, societies, and interests for mortal civilization. This overview provides a general figure, but there are countless other details and nuances in the history of Muslims around the world.